Lũ Bạn Không Ngờ Tới Và Những Chiêu “Troll” Của Game Thủ Sinh Viên

He"s the god of builders and contractors, known for creating a long line of products that helped the common people. Did he actually exist? It doesn"t matter — he now lends his name khổng lồ everything from stools to idioms.

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Depending on who you ask, automobiles, bicycles, & flying machines found their first forms in the mountainous terrain of Gansu over 2,000 years ago. Their creator is a mysterious figure who has snowballed into legkết thúc, his name put to the invention of all sorts of labor-saving tools, a personification of the nameless hundreds of innovative sầu craftsmen who made sophisticated Chinese crafts possible. He’s the god of builders and contractors in Chinese folk religion, Lǔ Bān 鲁班.

Even today the phrase 班门弄斧 bān mén nòng fǔ — literally, “to lớn brandish your axe at Lu Ban’s door” — is a comtháng idiom, used khổng lồ describe people who unwittingly boast their small achievements in front of those who’ve phối the bar, lượt thích showing off one’s front-crawl khổng lồ Michael Phelps or boasting about your lead role in an am-dram in front of Tom Hanks.

Who is Lu Ban?

Rather lượt thích wonder-surgeon Huà Tuó 华佗, Lu Ban’s legend thrived on the weight of generations of acceptance — existing evidence trumped by past precedent và the dazzling narrative sầu of ancient China’s sophisticated lore.

Lu Ban’s a vague appellation, just meaning “Ban from the State of Lu.” The root of this character may have been a real person called Gōngshū Pán 公输盘 (or is it Gong Shuzi?), who lived during the twilight years of the Zhou Dynasty, when Lu and other states had fractured inlớn the wars of the Spring and Autumn Period (770 — 481 BC). Born lớn a family of carpenters, perhaps in Dunhuang, it’s possible he was either a freed slave sầu or wandering artisan.

Legend says he was a mediocre school boy who disliked reading and writing. But he was inspired by studying under Confucius’s disciple Zixia, then apprenticed to the sage carpenter Bao Laodong.

He began working in the service of the expansionist State of Chu, one of the most powerful states of the Spring và Autumn Period. He built weapons of siege & naval warfare, like the so-called “cloud ladder” — a siege engine that allowed attackers to lớn rain down arrows and fire on the besieged from makeshift higher ground. He created grappling hooks & rams for naval warfare, standardizing the length of Chu weapons. The Book of “Mozi” says this led the Chu khổng lồ victory in wars over their enemies.

But it’s his inventions that helped the people for which he’s best remembered. Wood was the staple building material in ancient Đài Loan Trung Quốc. As a result, the dominant building tools were portable và light — not the sledgehammers và cranes of the quarry, but the chisel (凿 záo), shovel (铲 chǎn), planer (刨 báo), and bow drill (钻 zuān), all inventions assigned to lớn Lu Ban. The philosopher Mencius credited hlặng for the first carpenter’s square (曲尺 qūchǐ); Lu Ban even lends his name to lớn a line of folding stools used by laborers.

Most famous is his invention of the frame saw (锯 jù). Ordered by King Yuan of Zhou to build a palace, he was warned he & his team would suffer a brutal punishment (possibly beheading) for missing the deadline. Axes were the only way to gather and prepare the timber. It was too slow. Concerned, Lu Ban hurried up a very steep hill khổng lồ the building site. Hauling himself up by grabbing plants, he cut his h& on the serrated edge of one of the grasses he was holding. This became inspiration for the teeth that make a saw cut through wood quickly & cleanly.

But others helped hyên ổn too. According khổng lồ legend, Lu Ban’s wife, concerned at seeing her husb& toiling away at his work in soaking rain và scorching sun, designed a portable pavilion khổng lồ give hlặng shelter wherever he went. Today we know it as the umbrella.

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Although Joseph Needyêu thích said there was no reason khổng lồ doubt he did exist, there’s no archaeological evidence to suggest it, merely a phối of books dating from the 3rd-century BC to lớn the 13th-century AD. Yet there are consistent mentions of hlặng designing a bamboo “bird” (perhaps a khung of kite) that could stay in the air for up lớn three days, & a mechanical “wooden horse carriage” capable of self-propulsion. He made the latter khổng lồ help his frail old mother — but according khổng lồ the Lu Heng (a Han Dynasty text), “When his mother rode on it, it sped away never to lớn return.” But there are no surviving models or images to definitively prove sầu the existence of either of these.

Crafting a legacy

Lu Ban gained followers both high and low. Government officials offered gifts khổng lồ him before starting a big construction project, while carpenters & builders would kowtow lớn hyên ổn before raising the central roof beam of a new building. Daoists suggested he’d only invented his tools lớn make sure man harmonized with the perfect designs of the universe.

Unlượt thích scholars or physicians, inventors & architects were merely humble artisans. Although treated as a saint by all, his core followers were lowly. The Lu Ban Jing, a handbook, claimed to divulge his secrets lớn craftsmen — not just how best to build a pagoda, wheelbarrow, or granary, but also how lớn ward off evil spirits, the correct day & hour to lớn fell trees, and lists of evil stars to lớn be avoided. A century ago, carpenters in Sichuan would wash, burn incense, & make sacrifices to lớn “the immortal master Lu Ban, Lord of the Earth, the second of the Three Worlds” before they even opened the book.

They had reason khổng lồ be grateful. According lớn archeological research, the frame saw didn’t appear in China until 500 AD, the earliest use of a planer dating only to the 14th century. Hours of backbreaking labor with less specialized tools could have sầu loomed large in the collective sầu memory, crafting a narrative of thanks around a single person.

According lớn the Chinese Communist Party, Lu Ban’s motivations were lớn help the common people (much lượt thích the narrative sầu they sculpted for the apothecarist Lǐ Shízhēn 李时珍). A man who designed the first stone mill (石磨 shímò) for grinding flour (just because he felt bad for an old woman struggling khổng lồ bash wheat with pestle và mortar) could only be dedicated to easing their hard burden. Magical legends recorded in the Lu Ban Jing — his using a wooden statue lớn curse a rival Kingdom which had killed his father — have sầu faded from his legkết thúc.

In this narrative sầu he’s a classic peasant scholar who shunned book-based learning, demonstrating the value of the earthy knowledge that comes from generations of trial-and-error. Images showed hyên ổn as big and brawny, evidence of his years of hard labor. A 1958 film celebrated his life, “the incarnation of the industrious wisdom of the working people” according lớn Douban, which “proves that extraordinary miracles are created from ordinary labor.”

Lu Ban inevitably holds less authority than he used to lớn. Traditional crafts are slowly dying; prefab tower blocks in a mayfly cycle of build-demolish-rebuild constitutes the majority of home-building; handicrafts shunted aside by the plastics of factories in Zhejiang & Shenzhen.

But you can still find the Lu Ban ruler amongst Feng Shui enthusiasts: rather lượt thích the tape measure from Mary Poppins, different measurements are assigned characteristics. Windows, doors, or furniture of dimensions around 17 cm would ensure the homeowner has an abundance of descendants, but ones closer to 9 centimet puts the resident at risk for a spell in jail.

For some, Lu Ban’s inventions are valuable proof of Chinese talent. Not for nothing have sầu Chinese inventors tried to prove the existence of his wooden horse carriage & flying machine by research-based reconstructions. One Beijinger claimed khổng lồ have rebuilt Lu Ban’s proto-bicycle, which he tested on the streets of Beijing baông xã in 2010. “It is quite slow và looks lượt thích very hard work to steer & control,” as one bystander dryly put it.

But the state looks beyond historical accuracy, to lớn the sophisticated cultural tradition he stood for. It’s for this reason that CCP politicians have sầu given complex “Lu Ban lock” toy puzzles as gifts to lớn foreign dignitaries. The videos of “Grandpa Amu” — a traditional carpenter & hit YouTube vlogger churning out tables, bridges, even walking Peppa Pig machines — earned hyên ổn the title of “contemporary Lu Ban” in state truyền thông. Whether the man existed or not is irrelevant; he’s a symbol of Chinese excellence.